Reggae is most easily recognized by the rhythmic accents on the off-beat, usually played by guitar or piano (or both), known as the skank. This pattern accents the second and fourth beat in each bar (or the "and"s of each beat depending on how the music is counted) and combines with the drums emphasis on beat three to create a unique feel and sense of phrasing in contrast to most other popular genres focus on beat one, the "downbeat". The tempo of reggae is usually felt as slower than the popular Jamaican forms, ska and rocksteady, which preceded it. It is this slower tempo, the guitar/piano offbeats, the emphasis on the third beat, and the use of syncopated, melodic bass lines that differentiates reggae from other music, although other musical styles have incorporated some of these innovations separately.
Soca is a style of
Caribbean music from Trinidad and Tobago
Soca is said to have been created in 1963 by Ras Shorty I's "Clock and Dagger" from calypso music. Shorty added Indian instruments, including the dholak, tabla and dhantal. A prolific musician, composer and innovator, Shorty experimented with fusing calypso and the other Indian inspired music including chutney music for nearly a decade before unleashing "the soul of calypso,"...soca music. Shorty had been in
during an Exile One performance of cadence-lypso, and collaborated
with Dominica 's 1969 Calypso King, Lord Tokyo and two calypso lyricists, Chris
Seraphine and Pat Aaron in the early 1970s, who wrote him some creole lyrics.
Soon after Shorty released a song, "Ou Petit", with words like "Ou
dee moin ou petit Shorty" (meaning "you told me you are small
Shorty"), a combination of calypso, cadence and kwéyòl. Shorty's 1974
Endless Vibrations and Soul of Calypso brought soca to its peak of
international fame. Dominica