the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as
Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the
northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the
Atlantic Ocean meet. It is south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the
Bahamas, west of Haiti, and north of Jamaica. Havana is the largest city and
capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. Cuba is the
largest island in the Caribbean, with an area of 109,884 square kilometers
(42,426 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over
11 million inhabitants.
The territory of
Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney tribes in the 4th millennium BC.
Until the 15th century, it was inhabited by Amerindian tribes which became a
colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba gained
nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902. As a
fragile republic, Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but
mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in the
dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Further unrest and instability led
to Batista's ousting in January 1959 by the July 26 Movement, which afterwards
established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro. Since 1965,
the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba. A point of
contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States,
a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is
one of the few remaining Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of
the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent
observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses,
including arbitrary imprisonment.
is considered part of Latin America. It is a multi ethnic country whose people,
culture and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno
and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction
of African slaves, and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold
Cuba is a
founding member of the UN, G77, NAM, ACP, ALBA, and OAS. The country is one of
the world's last planned economies and its economy is dominated by the exports
of sugar, tobacco, coffee and skilled labor. According to the Human Development
Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in
North America, though 67th in the world. It also ranks highly in some metrics
of national performance, including health care and education, and is the only
country in the world to receive WWF's definition of sustainable development.
"Blinded by the Light" is a song written and
recorded by Bruce Springsteen which first appeared on his 1973 debut album
Greetings from Asbury Park, N.J.. A cover by British rock band Manfred Mann's
Earth Band reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 in the United States in
February 1977 and was also a top ten hit in the United Kingdom, New Zealand and
An incandescent light
bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a
wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible
light (incandescence). The filament, heated by passing an electric current
through it, is protected from oxidation with a glass or fused quartz bulb that
is filled with inert gas or evacuated. In a halogen lamp, filament evaporation
is slowed by a chemical process that redeposits metal vapor onto the filament,
extending its life. The light bulb is supplied with electric current by
feed-through terminals or wires embedded in the glass. Most bulbs are used in a
socket which provides mechanical support and electrical connections.
are manufactured in a wide range of sizes, light output, and voltage ratings,
from 1.5 volts to about 300 volts. They require no external regulating equipment,
have low manufacturing costs, and work equally well on either alternating
current or direct current. As a result, the incandescent lamp is widely used in
household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting such as table lamps,
car headlamps, and flashlights, and for decorative and advertising lighting.
are much less efficient than most other types of electric lighting;
incandescent bulbs convert less than 5% of the energy they use into visible
light, with standard light bulbs averaging about 2.2%. The remaining energy is
converted into heat. The luminous efficacy of a typical incandescent bulb is 16
lumens per watt, compared with 60 lm/W for a compact fluorescent bulb or 150 lm/W
for some white LED lamps. Some applications of the incandescent bulb (such as
heat lamps) deliberately use the heat generated by the filament. Such
applications include incubators, brooding boxes for poultry, heat lights for
reptile tanks, infrared heating for industrial heating and drying processes,
lava lamps, and the Easy-Bake Oven toy. Incandescent bulbs typically have short
lifetimes compared with other types of lighting; around 1,000 hours for home
light bulbs versus typically 10,000 hours for compact fluorescents and 30,000
hours for lighting LEDs.
have been replaced in many applications by other types of electric light, such
as fluorescent lamps, compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), cold cathode fluorescent
lamps (CCFL), high-intensity discharge lamps, and light-emitting diode lamps
(LED). Some jurisdictions, such as the European Union, China, Canada and United
States, are in the process of phasing out the use of incandescent light bulbs
while others, including Colombia, Mexico, Cuba, Argentina and Brazil, have
prohibited them already.
On October 21, 1879,
Thomas Edison devised a workable electric light at his laboratory in Menlo
Park, N.J. A New York Times reporter visited Edison there and wrote an article
about it that appeared in the paper on Dec. 28, 1879. “The lamp which Mr.
Edison regards as a crowning triumph is a model of simplicity and economy,” he
Edison was not the
first man to create incandescent light. The English scientist Humphrey Davy
built a powerful electric lamp in the early 1800s; The Englishman Joseph Swan
received a patent on a bulb in 1878 that Edison studied while building his own.
Edison’s feat was
creating a lamp that lasted longer and required less power than previous
designs that were impractical for everyday use. He also, through his Edison
Electrical Light Company (today, General Electric), built a system of power
stations to deliver the electricity needed to run his bulbs; he discussed his
plans for this in the same New York Times article.
Edison’s light bulb
was one great achievement in his brilliant career. Known as the “Wizard of
Menlo Park,” Edison received more than 1,000 patents for his work and created
or improved upon items like the phonograph, the motion picture camera and a
battery for vehicles.
DJ Deepert had made a great Love, Vocal and
House set. We went over the 20 guests again, after weeks we even went under the
10 guests. It seems that there is some people like it at T.R.A.C.S and came back. And a
great deejay as DJ Deepert surely contributes to this. Thank you Deepert.
is a style of house music and characterized by intense melodic elements, as
well as singing mostly female singer in comparison to the ordinary House. The
lyrics are usually worked out with great care and nicety of detail, executed
with great minuteness as any sample loops of other sub-genres. Vocal House
counts in addition to funky house to the most popular House styles. The speed
of this type of House is usually the usual 128 BPM.
The Rocky Horror Picture Show is a 1975 British-American
musical screwball comedy horror film by 20th Century Fox produced by Lou Adler
and Michael White and directed by Jim Sharman. The screenplay was written by
Sharman and actor Richard O'Brien, who appears in the film, which is based on
the 1973 musical stage production of the same title, with music, book, and
lyrics by O'Brien. The production is a parody tribute to the science fiction
and horror B movies of the 1930s through to the early 1970s. Along with
O'Brien, the film stars Tim Curry, Susan Sarandon, and Barry Bostwick and is
narrated by Charles Gray with cast members from the original Royal Court
Theatre, Roxy Theatre, and Belasco Theatre productions.
The story centres on a young engaged couple whose car
breaks down in the rain near a castle where they seek a telephone to call for
help. The castle or country home is occupied by strangers in elaborate costumes
celebrating an annual convention. They discover the head of the house is Dr.
Frank N. Furter, an apparent mad scientist who actually is an alien
transvestite who creates a living muscle man in his laboratory. The couple are
seduced separately by the mad scientist and eventually released by the servants
who take control.
The film was shot in the United Kingdom at Bray Studios
and on location at an old country estate named Oakley Court, best known for its
earlier use by Hammer Film Productions. A number of props and set pieces were
reused from the Hammer horror films. Although the film is both a parody of and
tribute to many of the kitsch science fiction and horror films, costume
designer Sue Blane conducted no research for her designs. Blane stated that
costumes from the film have directly affected the development of punk rock
fashion trends such as ripped fishnets and dyed hair.
Although largely critically panned on initial release, it
soon became known as a midnight movie when audiences began participating with
the film at the Waverly Theater in New York City in 1976. Audience members
returned to the cinemas frequently and talked back to the screen and began
dressing as the characters, spawning similar performance groups across the
United States. At almost the same time, fans in costume at the King's Court
Theater in Pittsburgh began performing alongside the film. This "shadow
cast" mimed the actions on screen above and behind them, while lip-syncing
their character's lines. Still in limited release four decades after its
premiere, it is the longest-running theatrical release in film history. It is
often shown close to Halloween. Today, the film has a large international cult
following. It was selected for preservation in the United States National Film
Registry by the Library of Congress in 2005.
The film's creative team also produced Shock Treatment in
1981, a standalone feature using the characters of Brad and Janet and featuring
some of the same cast.