Willem van Gogh 30 March 1853 – 29 July 1890 was a Dutch Post-Impressionist
painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of
Western art. In just over a decade he created about 2,100 artworks, including
around 860 oil paintings, most of them in the last two years of his life. They
include landscapes, still lifes, portraits and self-portraits, and are
characterised by bold colours and dramatic, impulsive and expressive brushwork
that contributed to the foundations of modern art. However, he was not
commercially successful, and his suicide at 37 followed years of mental illness
into an upper-middle-class family, Van Gogh drew as a child and was serious,
quiet and thoughtful. As a young man he worked as an art dealer, often
travelling, but became depressed after he was transferred to London. He turned
to religion and spent time as a Protestant missionary in southern Belgium. He
drifted in ill health and solitude before taking up painting in 1881, having
moved back home with his parents. His younger brother Theo supported him
financially, and the two kept up a long correspondence by letter. His early
works, mostly still lifes and depictions of peasant labourers, contain few
signs of the vivid colour that distinguished his later work. In 1886, he moved
to Paris, where he met members of the avant-garde, including Émile Bernard and
Paul Gauguin, who were reacting against the Impressionist sensibility. As his
work developed, he created a new approach to still lifes and local landscapes.
His paintings grew brighter in colour as he developed a style that became fully
realised during his stay in Arles in the south of France in 1888. During this period,
he broadened his subject matter to include series of olive trees, wheat fields
suffered from psychotic episodes and delusions and though he worried about his
mental stability, he often neglected his physical health, did not eat properly
and drank heavily. His friendship with Gauguin ended after a confrontation with
a razor, when in a rage, he severed part of his own left ear. He spent time in
psychiatric hospitals, including a period at Saint-Rémy. After he discharged
himself and moved to the Auberge Ravoux in Auvers-sur-Oise near Paris, he came
under the care of the homeopathic doctor Paul Gachet. His depression continued
and on 27 July 1890, Van Gogh shot himself in the chest with a revolver. He
died from his injuries two days later.
was unsuccessful during his lifetime and was considered a madman and a failure.
He became famous after his suicide and exists in the public imagination as the
quintessential misunderstood genius, the artist "where discourses on
madness and creativity converge". His reputation began to grow in the
early 20th century as elements of his painting style came to be incorporated by
the Fauves and German Expressionists. He attained widespread critical,
commercial and popular success over the ensuing decades, and is remembered as
an important but tragic painter, whose troubled personality typifies the
romantic ideal of the tortured artist. Today, Van Gogh's works are among the world's
most expensive paintings to have ever sold at auction, and his legacy is
honoured by a museum in his name, the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, which holds
the world's largest collection of his paintings and drawings.
Noorderplantsoen is an urban public park
in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands, situated slightly north of the
city center. Its name is Dutch for northern public garden.
the Vestingswet was passed. This law allowed cities to expand outside of the
city walls and fortifications. Since the fortifications were no longer in use,
they were transformed into a public park. The earth ramparts were incorporated
in the park architecture and the moats were turned into ponds. The architecture
is of an English garden style, characterized by meandering paths and serpentine
ponds, inspired by wild nature. The shape of the park still reflects the former
purpose of the area: the long but narrow park curves around the old city. The
park includes an Art Nouveau bandstand and a small restaurant.
the mid-90s the Noorderplantsoen was split up by a busy road, but a referendum
in 1994 decided - with a narrow majority - to close this road for motorized
year a number of events take place in the Noorderplantsoen, of which the
Noorderzon Theater Festival is well known. This cultural event takes place at
the end of August and is visited by over 125,000 visitors. Many theater, dance
and music groups from The Netherlands and abroad perform during this 11-day
well-known event in the Noorderplantsoen is the plantsoenloop. This run through
the park is held annually in October or early November and attracts about 500
runners. In 2007 the 50th edition of the plantsoenloop took place.
Snapshots of the Weather Party. Tim played a great set of the weather songs. The Trivia about Weather Songs was little hard so next time I will use (or make myself) the trivia questions of our regular Trivia Artist, Beep Carter.
Tim with his first Bento Mesh head, Does he not looks handsome?
The date of the establishment of the
World Meteorological Organization in 23 March 1950 has been named World
Meteorological Day. This organization announces a slogan for World Meteorology
Day every year, and this day is celebrated in all member countries.
Meteorological Day is celebrated every year on 23 March to commemorate the
entry into force in 1950 of the convention that created the World Meteorological
Organization. The day also highlights the contribution that National
Meteorological and Hydrological Services make to the safety and well-being of
society. Many different activities and events are
organized for this occasion.
for 2019 is The Sun, the Earth and the Weather and reflects the core purpose of
WMO and the essential role of NMHSs in monitoring the Earth System in order to
deliver daily weather forecasts and advise policy makers about climate
variability and change. In doing so, the WMO community supports actions that
protect lives and property from extreme weather and builds long-term climate
the Earth and the Weather 23 March 2019
delivers the energy that powers all life on Earth. It drives the weather, ocean
currents and the hydrological cycle.
shapes our mood and our daily activities. It is the inspiration for music,
photography and art.
is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it
is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. Most weather
phenomena occur in the lowest level of the atmosphere, the troposphere, just
below the stratosphere. Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and
precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the averaging of
atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. When used without
qualification, "weather" is generally understood to mean the weather
is driven by air pressure, temperature and moisture differences between one
place and another. These differences can occur due to the sun's angle at any
particular spot, which varies with latitude. The strong temperature contrast
between polar and tropical air gives rise to the largest scale atmospheric
circulations: the Hadley Cell, the Ferrel Cell, the Polar Cell, and the jet
stream. Weather systems in the mid-latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones,
are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow. Because the Earth's axis is
tilted relative to its orbital plane, sunlight is incident at different angles
at different times of the year. On Earth's surface, temperatures usually range
±40 °C (−40 °F to 100 °F) annually. Over thousands of years, changes in Earth's
orbit can affect the amount and distribution of solar energy received by the
Earth, thus influencing long-term climate and global climate change.
temperature differences in turn cause pressure differences. Higher altitudes
are cooler than lower altitudes, as most atmospheric heating is due to contact
with the Earth's surface while radiative losses to space are mostly constant.
Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the
state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. The Earth's
weather system is a chaotic system; as a result, small changes to one part of
the system can grow to have large effects on the system. Human attempts to
control the weather have occurred throughout history, and there is evidence
that human activities such as agriculture and industry have modified weather
how the weather works on other planets has clarified how weather works on
Earth. A famous landmark in the Solar System, Jupiter's Great Red Spot, is an
anticyclonic storm known to have existed for at least 300 years. However,
weather is not limited to planetary bodies. A star's corona is constantly being
lost to space, creating what is essentially a very thin atmosphere throughout
the Solar System. The movement of mass ejected from the Sun is known as the
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often
extravagant style of architecture, music, painting, sculpture and other arts
that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It
followed the Renaissance style and preceded the Rococo (in the past often
referred to as "late Baroque") and Neoclassical styles. It was encouraged
by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of
Protestant architecture, art and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed
in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, movement,
exuberant detail, deep colour, grandeur and surprise to achieve a sense of awe.
The style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome, then spread rapidly
to France, northern Italy, Spain and Portugal, then to Austria and southern
Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an even more flamboyant style,
called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until
the mid to late 18th century.
Music and ballet
The term Baroque is also used to
designate the style of music composed during a period that overlaps with that
of Baroque art. The first uses of the term 'baroque' for music were criticisms.
In an anonymous, satirical review of the première in October 1733 of Rameau's
Hippolyte et Aricie, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic
implied that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque," complaining
that the music lacked coherent melody, was filled with unremitting dissonances,
constantly changed key and meter, and speedily ran through every compositional
device. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who was a musician and noted composer as well as
philosopher, made a very similar observation in 1768 in the famous Encylopedié
of Denis Diderot: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused,
and loaded with modulations and dissonances. The singing is harsh and
unnatural, the intonation difficult, and the movement limited. It appears that
term comes from the word 'baroco' used by logicians."
Common use of the term for the music of
the period began only in 1919, by Curt Sachs, and it was not until 1940 that it
was first used in English in an article published by Manfred Bukofzer.
The baroque was a period of musical
experimentation and innovation. New forms were invented, including the concerto
and sinfonia. Opera was born in Italy at the end of the 16th century (with
Jacopo Peri's mostly lost Dafne, produced in Florence in 1598) and soon spread
through the rest of Europe: Louis XIV created the first Royal Academy of Music,
In 1669, the poet Pierre Perrin opened an academy of opera in Paris, the first
opera theater in France open to the public, and premiered Pomone, the first
grand opera in French, with music by Robert Cambert, with five acts, elaborate
stage machinery, and a ballet. Heinrich
Schütz in Germany, Jean-Baptiste Lully in France, and Henry Purcell in England
all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century.
The classical ballet also originated in
the Baroque era. The style of court dance was brought to France by Marie de
Medici, and in the beginning the members of the court themselves were the
dancers. Louis XIV himself performed in public in several ballets. In March
1662, the Académie Royale de Danse, was founded by the King. It was the first
professional dance school and company and set the standards and vocabulary for
ballet throughout Europe during the period.
Several new instruments, including the
piano, were introduced during this period. The invention of the piano is
credited to Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655–1731) of Padua, Italy, who was employed
by Ferdinando de' Medici, Grand Prince of Tuscany, as the Keeper of the
Instruments. Cristofori named the instrument un cimbalo di cipresso di piano e
forte ("a keyboard of cypress with soft and loud"), abbreviated over
time as pianoforte, fortepiano, and later, simply, piano.
Some composers and examples
Johann Pachelbel(1653–1706), Canon in D
Antonio Vivaldi (1678–1741), The Four
George Frederic Handel(1685–1759),
Water Music (1717), Messiah (1741)
Johann Sebastian Bach(1685–1750),
Toccata and Fugue in D minor (1703–1707), Brandenburg Concertos (1721), St
Matthew Passion (1727