"Nightswimming" is a song by the
American alternative rock band R.E.M. It was released in 1993 as the fifth
single from the group's eighth album Automatic for the People (1992).
"Nightswimming" is a ballad featuring singer Michael Stipe
accompanied only by bassist Mike Mills on piano, a string arrangement by former
Led Zeppelin bassist John Paul Jones, and a prominent oboe by Deborah Workman
in the latter part of the piece. Stipe sings about a group of friends who go
skinny dipping at night, which draws from similar experiences in the band's
The inspiration for the song has been
debated by the band members. Stipe, in a 2001 Esquire article, clarified the
true origin of the song. "A few years ago, I wanted to write a song about
night watchmen, so I hired one to guard the R.E.M. offices in Athens. I bought him
a uniform and a flashlight and everything. He turned out to be kind of crazy
and called me up in the middle of the night to tell me dirty stories about the
Kennedys. I wrote the song about him, but he was so paranoid he said he was
going to sue me, so I changed the lyric from 'Night watchman' to
Conversely in the past Mill's said,
"It's based on true events", explaining that in the early 1980s
R.E.M. and its circle of friends would go skinny dipping after the Athens clubs closed
at night. "We'd go to parties, we'd go to the clubs and we'd go to the
Ball Pump, and there would be any number of these same 50 people, so it was a
very tight circle of friends." Peter Buck holds a similar
interpretation. However, Stipe has denied that that is the topic of the song;
rather, Stipe says the song is about a "kind of an innocence that's either
kind of desperately clung onto or obviously lost." Stipe said there are
autobiographical elements to the song, but insists most of it is "made
A swimming pool,
swimming bath, wading pool, paddling pool, or simply a pool, is a man-made
container filled with water intended for swimming or other water-based recreation.
A pool can be built either above or in-ground, and be constructed from
materials such as concrete (also known as gunite), metal, plastic or
fiberglass. Pools can be decorative or custom shape and size, or they may be
standard sizes, the largest of which is the Olympic-size swimming pool.
Many health clubs
such as the YMCA, fitness centers and private clubs have public pools used
mostly for exercise. Many hotels have pools available for their guests.
Educational facilities such as schools and universities occasionally have pools
for swimming or physical education classes, or competitive athletics such as
swim team. Hot tubs and spas are pools with hot water, used for relaxation or
therapy, and are common in homes, hotels, clubs and massage parlors. Swimming
pools are also used for diving and other water sports, as well as for the
training of lifeguards and astronauts.
Bath" at the site of Mohenjo-Daro in modern-day Pakistan was most likely
the first swimming pool, dug during the 3rd millennium BC. This pool is 12 by 7
metres (39 by 23 feet), is lined with bricks and was covered with a tar-based
The Great bath
The Great bath
and Romans built artificial pools for athletic training in the palaestras, for
nautical games and for military exercises. Roman emperors had private swimming
pools in which fish were also kept, hence one of the Latin words for a pool,
piscina. The first heated swimming pool was built by Gaius Maecenas of Rome in
the first century BC. Gaius Maecenas was a rich Roman lord and considered one of
the first patrons of arts.
built pairs of pools called "Kuttam Pokuna" in the kingdom of
Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka in the 4th century BC. They were decorated with flights
of steps, punkalas or pots of abundance and scroll design.
became popular in Britain in the mid-19th century. As early as 1837, six indoor
pools with diving boards existed in London, England. The Maidstone Swimming
Club in Maidstone, Kent, England is believed to be the oldest surviving
swimming club in Britain. It was formed in 1844, in response to concerns over
drownings in the River Medway, especially since would-be rescuers would often
drown because they themselves could not swim to safety. The club used to swim
in the River Medway, and would hold races, diving competitions and water polo
matches. The South East Gazette July 1844 reported an aquatic breakfast party:
coffee and biscuits were served on a floating raft in the river. The coffee was
kept hot over a fire; club members had to tread water and drink coffee at the
same time. The last swimmers managed to overturn the raft, to the amusement of
In 1839, Oxford
created its first major public indoor pool at Temple Cowley, and swimming began
to increase in popularity. The Amateur Swimming Association was founded in 1869
in England, and the Oxford Swimming Club in 1909 with its home at Temple Cowley
The presence of
indoor baths in the cobbled area of Merton Street, London may have persuaded
the less hardy of the aquatic brigade to join. So, bathers gradually became
swimmers, and bathing pools became swimming pools.
Olympic Games started in 1896 and included swimming races, after which the
popularity of swimming pools began to spread. In the USA, the Racquet Club of
Philadelphia clubhouse (1907) boasts one of the world's first modern
above-ground swimming pools. The first swimming pool to go to sea on an ocean
liner was installed on the White Star Line's Adriatic in 1907. The oldest known
public swimming pool in America, Underwood Pool, is located in Belmont,
Interest in competitive
swimming grew following World War I. Standards improved and training became
essential. Home swimming pools became popular in the United States after World
War II and the publicity given to swimming sports by Hollywood films like
Esther Williams' Million Dollar Mermaid made a home pool a desirable status
symbol. More than fifty years later, the home or residential swimming pool is a
common sight. Some small nations enjoy a thriving swimming pool industry (e.g.
New Zealand pop. 4,116,900 [Source NZ Census 7 March 2006] - holds the record
in pools per capita with 65,000 home swimming pools and 125,000 spa pools).
white concrete swimming pool building composed of horizontal cubic volumes
built in 1959 at the Royal Roads Military College is on the Registry of
Historic Places of Canada.
Artemios "Demis" Ventouris
Roussos, 15 June 1946 – 25 January 2015 was a Greek singer and performer who
had international hit records as a solo performer in the 1970s after having
been a member of Aphrodite's Child, a progressive rock group that also included
He shot to
fame in the 1970s after teaming up with fellow Greek musician Vangelis in the
band Aphrodite's Child.He soon
went solo and built a long career over which he sold millions of albums with
such hits as
"Forever and Ever", "Mr Reason", "Goodbye
My Love, Goodbye" and "Quand je t'aime."
with Nana Mouskouri, he is one of the two biggest Greek pop music artists. They
are the two great voices that put Greece on the map," French-Greek TV
personality Nikos Aliagas told the AFP news agency.
Ging Gang Goolie or Ging Gang Gooli is a
gibberish scouting song, said to be written by Robert Baden-Powell during the
1st World Scout Jamboree. It is popular among the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides.
During the Second Boer War, Baden Powell
listened to songs in African languages. The nonsense lyrics of "Ging Gang
Goolie" might have been inspired by these songs. Baden-Powell is said to
have written this song during the 1st World Scout Jamboree in 1920. The song
used gibberish to ensure that children from different countries could sing the
song irrespective of what their mother tongue is. The tune is based on an
extract from Mozart's Symphony No.1, composed when he was eight years old.
Dorothy Unterschutz, a Canadian Scout
Leader from Edmonton, later invented a story as an explanation for the song's lyrics.
The story "The Great Grey Ghost Elephant" was published in Scouts
Canada's "The Leader" magazine in 1991 (June–July issue, Page 7). The
story talks of a "Great Grey Ghost Elephant", who wanders in the
African lands every year, after the rains. The villagers believed that if it
went round their village, the village would have a prosperous year, and if it
went through it, there would be drought. The elephant had been going through
the village of Wat-Cha for the past three years, and therefore the villagers decided to
come up with a plan to deter it from entering their village. It was decided
that the village leader Ging-Gang and his men would frighten the elephant by
standing in its path and shaking their shields and spears. The medicine man
Shayla and his men would cast magic spells, and frighten the elephant by
producing the "Shally wally" sound by shaking their magical
equipment. When the elephant arrived, the villagers gathered started shouting
the names of their leaders. They were successful in their plan, and the
elephant went around the village, making the sound "Oompah, oompah".
The villagers celebrated by singing the song "Ging Gang…". Around the
campfire the scouts can be divided into section and the song is sung in rounds.
It makes for a tremendous rousing experience.
The Boy Scouts of
America (BSA), one of the largest private youth organizations in the United
States, has policies which prohibit atheists, agnostics and, until January
2014, prohibited all "open or avowed" homosexuals,
from membership in its Scouting program. The ban on "open or avowed"
homosexual adults from membership remains in effect. BSA has denied or revoked
membership status or leadership positions for violation of these foundational
principles. The BSA contends that its policies are essential in its mission to
instill in young people the values of the Scout Oath and Law.
organization's legal right to have these policies has been upheld repeatedly by
both state and federal courts. In Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, the Supreme
Court of the United States has affirmed that as a private organization, the BSA
can set its own membership standards. The BSA's policies have been legally
challenged but have not been found to constitute illegal discrimination because
as a private organization in the United States, the BSA has the right to
freedom of association, as determined in the court case. In recent years, the
policy disputes have led to litigation over the terms under which the BSA can
access governmental resources, including public lands.
have led to various disputes and controversies. In 2012, both Republican
presidential candidate Mitt Romney
and then President Barack Obama
stated that they opposed the ban on gay Scouts. On May 23, 2013, the BSA's
National Council approved a resolution to remove
the restriction denying membership to youth on the basis of sexual orientation
alone effective January 1, 2014. The policy for adult leaders remains in place:
"[BSA does] not grant membership
to [adults] who are open or avowed homosexuals".
Boy Scouting is a
membership level of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) for boys and young men. It
provides youth training in character, citizenship, and mental and personal
fitness. Boy Scouts are expected to develop personal religious values, learn
the principles of American heritage and government, and acquire skills to
become successful adults.
To achieve these,
Boy Scouting applies eight methods of Scouting: Ideals (viz., the Scout Oath,
the Scout Law, the Scout Motto, and the Scout Slogan), the patrol method,
participation in outdoor programs, advancement, adult association, personal
growth, leadership development, and
In English, this
motto is most commonly
Be Prepared. In the third part of Scouting for Boys
Robert Baden-Powell explains the meaning of the phrase:
The Scout Motto
is: BE PREPARED which means you are always in a state of readiness in mind and
body to do your DUTY.
Be Prepared in Mind by having disciplined
yourself to be obedient to every order, and also by having thought out
beforehand any accident or situation that might occur, so that you know the
right thing to do at the right moment, and are willing to do it.
Be Prepared in Body by making yourself strong
and active and able to do the right thing at the right moment, and do it.
Boy Scouting is
generally available to boys between the ages of 10 and eighteen. They are
organized in Scout troops, administered by volunteers with support of paid
professional staff. Youth and adult members are Scouts, the boys are referred
to as Boy Scouts, and the adults as Scouters.
In 1994, the
Chronicle of Philanthropy, an industry publication, released the results of the
largest study of charitable and non-profit organization popularity and
credibility. The study showed that the Boy Scouts was ranked as the 7th
"most popular charity/non-profit in America" of over 100 charities
researched with 42% of Americans over the age of 12 choosing Love and Like A
lot for the Boy Scouts.